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The Middle Ages Main Contents General Introduction Manor and Church Learning and Science Literature Art and Architecture The Definition of Middle Ages:     Middle Ages : The period in European history between the collapse of Rome and the Renaissance, from 476 CE to about 1450. It is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. It is also known as the medieval period, and as the Dark Ages. As during the Middle times there was no central government to keep the order, and the Christian church shaped people ’ s ideas and lives by taking the lead in politics, law, art, and learning of Europe, it is also called “ Age of Faith .” II. Manor and Church 1. Feudalism In 732 Charles Martel , a Frankish ruler gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs as reward for their service. Soldiers(fiefs) lords(vassals) king nobles became independent rulers, they had rights to collect taxes make laws coin money raise armies Feudalism a form of local and decentralized government Three elements of feudalism Feudalism is defined by three elements that existed and characterized the medieval period: lords ( 封建领主 ), vassals ( 封臣 ) and fiefs ( 封地 , 采邑 ). A lord was a noble who owned land. A vassal was given land by the lord. The land was known as a fief. In exchange for the fief, the vassal would provide military service to the lord. The obligations and relations between lord, vassal and fief form the basis of feudalism. Manorialism : .What is manorialism?        Manorialism is the other side of the feudal coin, for it deals with the social and economic relationships between the peasants and their lords (which feudalism does not infer). In a sense, manorial agriculture is the economic base of feudalism.        Manors usually had four parts to them: arable land, meadow land, waste land, and the village. Each part had a specific purpose and none could be dispensed with if the manor was to survive. Knighthood & Code of Chivalry Knighthood and Chivalry Nobles, Knights, and Lords Warrior became duke, marquis, earl, count, baron or knight Code of Chivalry Protect women, children, priests, noncombatants Courtly Love celebrated love of young noble for a noble woman Influenced later literature and ideas of romantic love The Code of Chivalry A knight was to obey his lord. A knight was expected to show bravery. A knight was to respect women of noble birth. A knight was to honor the church. A knight was to help people. A knight was to be honest and to fight fairly. 2. The church Center of daily life place of worship place for recreation center of trade center of community activity Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Organization of Church The Catholic Church was a highly centralized and disciplined international organization. Pope (罗马教皇) ↓ Archbishops (大主教) ↓ Bishop (主教) ↓ Priests (神甫) Monasticism 隐修制度 Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves to a religious life Monasteries became centers of education, literacy and learning; hospitals, guesthouses, distribution centers, and storage facilities St. Augustine- ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Church 圣奥古斯丁 Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St. Benedict 本笃会规 - vow for poverty - vow for chastity - vow for obedience Augustine of Hippo (北非希波主教奥古斯丁,神学界的旷世奇才) The Church and the Kings Church was granted favors by Roman Emperors/Kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in courts, positions in courts) and in return the Church would endorse kings to help secure their rule Kings looked to Church to supply educated administrators to help run kingdoms and in return kings would enforce laws that prohibited other religions 3. The Crusades Reason : Process: First Crusade 1096—1099 Second Crusade 1147--- 1149 Third Crusade 1189--- 1192 Fourth Crusade 1202--- 1204 Fifth Crusade 1218--- 1221 Sixth Crusade 1228--- 1229 Seventh Crusade 1248--- 1254 Eighth Crusade 1270 End: Significance: Effects of the Crusades Helped to break down feudalism by increasing the authority of kings - land - power Learned from superior Muslim technology: build better ships; use a compass; etc.. An interest in trade: silk; spices; sugar; art; Literature, etc.. 从东到西 Arabic numerals 阿拉伯数字 Algebra 几何 Spices 调料 Silk 丝绸 Perfume 香料 Hand-woven carpets 手工地毯 III. Learning and Science 1. Charlemagne(查理曼大帝) Carolingian Renaissance卡洛林王朝复兴 2. Alfred the Great and Wessex Center of Learning 阿尔弗雷德大帝 Alfred the Great 3. St. Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism(经院哲学) St. Thomas Aquinas(圣托马斯.阿奎那) Summa Contra Gentiles 《反异教大全》 Summa Theologiae 《神学大全》 4. Roger Bacon and Experimental Science Roger Bacon (罗吉尔·培根) Experimental Science(实验科学) IV. Literature National Epics –the product of the Heroic Age.Written in vernacular languages A. Beowulf 《贝奥武夫》 1.epic         Epic is an extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, like Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. It usu. celebrates the feats of one or more legendary or traditional heroes. The action is simple but full of magnificence. Today, some long narrative works, like novels that reveal an age and its people are also called epic. What is the plot and theme of England’s national epic Beowulf? 英国史诗《贝奥武夫》的情节是如何展开的?其主题是什么?        Beowulf, nephew of the king of the Geats, hears that Hrothgar, a Danish king, is in great trouble. The kingdom of the king is harassed by a monster called Grendel. He at once sails there, grapples with the monster, and wounds it fatally. Then comes Grendel’s mother, a she-monster, in revenge of her son. Beowulf follows her to her under-water cave and kills her with a giant sword. With these honors won, he returns to his homeland and reigns as its king for 50 years. Then a fire-breathing dragon comes out of its den and kills many people. Though old now, Beowulf still kills it sing-handedly. But he, too, is fatally wound and later dies. Thematically, this poem shows how the primitive people fight against the forces of the natural world under a wise and mighty leader. B. Song of Roland (罗兰之歌) 组诗: La Chanson de Gestes 《武功歌》 2. Dante Alighieri and The Divine Comedy A. Dante Alighieri (但丁) great poet of Italy prose writer literary theorist moral philosopher political thinker B. The Divine Comedy(《神曲》) Landmark of world literature The greatest Christian poem Expresses humanistic ideas which foreshadowed the spirit of Renaissance 3. Geoffrey Chaucer (乔叟) Father of English Poetry The first English short story teller The first modern poet Introducer of Alliterative (头韵)Verse The Canterbury Tales 《坎特伯雷故事集》 What is a Heroic Couplet? Heroic couplet is a rhyming couplet of iambic pentameter, often containing a complete thought. There is a fairly heavy pause at the end of the first line and a still heavier one at the end of the second. Commonly there is a parallel or an antithesis within a line, or between the two lines. It is called heroic because in England, especially in the eighteenth century, it was much used for heroic (epic) poems. V. Art and Architecture Romanesque :(罗马式)means in the Roman manner Gothic (哥特式) A style of architecture originated in N. France in 11th century, characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, steep, high roofs, etc. Thank You!

《She had eggs and sausages》介绍PPT课件:这是一个关于《She had eggs and sausages》介绍PPT课件,主要是Listening questions:1. What did she have for breakfast ?2. What did she have for lunch?3. What did she have for dinner?等等。鸡蛋和香肠eggs and sausages 炸鱼和马铃薯片fish and chips Eggs , eggs I had eggs. Sausages , sausages I like sausages. Sandwiches, sandwiches I don’t like sandwiches. I like fish and chips,欢迎点击下载《She had eggs and sausages》介绍PPT课件哦。

《She had eggs and sausages》介绍PPT:这是一个关于《She had eggs and sausages》介绍PPT,主要是了解What’s your favorite food?My favorite food is/are…Do you knowwhat is the English food ?1、What did she have for breakfast?Do you know what is the English food ? 1、What did she have for breakfast? She had eggs and sausages. 2、What did she have for lunch? She had sandwiches. 3、What did she have for dinner? She had fish and chips. Fill in the blanks: What did Lingling have,欢迎点击下载《She had eggs and sausages》介绍PPT哦。

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