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The happy man ppt

这是The happy man ppt,包括了Para4-5: Russell offers his first solution,All unhappiness depends upon some kind of disintegration<解体> or lack of integration; there is disintegration within the self through lack of coordination between the conscious and the unconscious mind等内容,欢迎点击下载。

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The Happy Man Unit 1 Text Analysis This article is the last chapter of his famous book The Conquest of Happiniss, Russell states that "happiness depends partly upon external circumstances and partly upon oneself", which shows his well-balanced as well as realistic view on happiness. Para 1: After having briefly stressed the importance of external things, Russell shifts the focus of his argument to the significance of the spiritual element and points out clearly that the greatest obstacle in people’s way to happiness is their excessive self-absorption. He discusses in detail one of those self-centered passions--fear. Para2-3: efforts are made to make the author’s main argument more substantial. The author points out the drawback to self-centered passions and describes the happy man. It follows that only one thing is left to be dealt with, that is, how to get rid of the self-centered passions and become a happy man. Para4-5: Russell offers his first solution: to cultivate genuine interests and introduces in detail the spicific remedies for such self-centered passions as the sense of sin, self-pity and fear. The fifth paragraph reemphasizes the importance of one’s genuine interests. Para6-7: The lat two paragraphs are relatively more complicated, for the author sets the traditional moralists as the target of his criticism. He points out that self-denial which is much advocated by professional moralists is also a kind of self-centered passions. Russell does not reject the things the moralists suggest, but lays his emphasis on the state of mind when people are doing such things. That is to say, if people do not do good things spontaneously and happily, the good things would not be good. In the last paragraph, Russell talks about whether or not love should be unselfish. To conclude, Russell thinks the highest form of halliness is of a natural and healthy type, which is a well-balanced combination of external circumstances and oneself. When the external circumstances are favorable, the greatest obstacle to happiness is self-centered passions. what he proposes one should do to get rid of the obstacle and achieve this natural and healthy happiness is to cultivate genuine interests in the outside world. Only by taking oneself as a member, rather than as the center, of the universe, can he find the greatest joy of life. Paraphrase ... that happiness is impossible without a creed of a more or less religious kind. (para1) Without following with a somewhat religious awe and devotion, a strict set of principles which include the idea of self-sacrifice and other similiar ideas, the realization of happiness would be impossible. 如果没有一种多少带有宗教色彩的信仰,那么幸福是不可能的。 lt is thought by many who are themselves unhappy that their sorrows have complicated and highly intellectualised sources. (para1) Many unhappy people think their unhappiness is a reflaction of their profundity. 许多自己并不幸福的人认为,他们的忧伤有着复杂而高度理智化的原因。 To be the recipient of affection is a potent cause of happiness, but the man who demands affection is not the man upon whom it is bestowed.(para3) To be a man who can receive affection from others is to be a happy man. But if such affection is not given out of their free will, but as a result of a demand or even coercion[kəʊ'ɜ:ʃn]强迫, then he who receives such a reluctant offer still can not be made happy. 能成为被爱的对象,固然是幸福的一大源泉,然而索取爱的人并不就真的能够得到爱。 The man who receives affection is, speaking broadly, the man who gives it.(para3) In normal cases, the gain of affection is a natural reward of one’s offer of affection. 广义说来,得到爱的人正是给予爱的人。 ...if he is to get outside it, it must be by genuine interests, not by simulated模拟 interests adopted merely as a medicine.(para4) If one wants to break the deadlock僵局 of self-centered passions, he should try to cultivate some real interests in the outside world. In the process, he must be sincere and devote himself wholeheartedly. If he only wishes to better his miserable condition by imitating others’ behavior, then nothing will be changed, for his concern is still confined exclusively to himself. 如果他要跳出来,他就得借助于真实的兴趣,而不是指望那些被当作药物一般接受的做作的兴趣。 What the objective interests are to be that will arise in you when you have overcome the disease of self-absorption must be left to the spontaneous workings of your nature and of external circumstances.(para5) When you have escaped from the firm grip of your self-centered passions, you will find some genuine interests towards the outside world being cultivated. Yet, you cannot decide these types of interests in advance. They are actually the result of the joint workings of your nature and external circumstances. 当你战胜了自我专注的毛病,至于以后能有什么样的客观兴趣,那只能是你的天性和外界环境的自然而然的结果,你就不必为此徒费心神了。 Conscious self-denial leaves a man self-absorbed and vividly aware of what he has sacrificed; in consequence it fails often of its immediate object and almost always of its ultimate purpose.(para6) If one makes deliberate efforts in sacrificing his desires or interests, he is actually thinking too much of himself and attaching more weight to his behavior of sacrifice than others’ benefit. Therefore, his unnatural efforts will neither bring real pleasure to others, which is the immediate object of his self-denial, nor enhance his moral level, which is his ultimate purpose. 有意识的自我克制,使一个人变得专注于自我,并清楚地知道他所作的牺牲,这样做的结果只能是:在当前的目标上,他往往失败;在最后的目标上,他几乎总会落空。 What is needed is not self-denial, but that kind of direction of interest outward which will lead spontaneously and naturally to the same acts that a person absorbed in the pursuit of his own virtue could only perform by means of conscious self-denial.(para6) As one whose purpose is the pursuit of his own virtue may achieve it through painful efforts of self-denial, he may achieve it easily and naturally through cultivating genuine interests towards the outside world. 人们需要的并不是自我克制,而是那种外向型的兴趣,后者能产生自发的、不做作的行为——这种行为在一个专注于追求自身修养的人那儿,是只有依靠有意识的自我克制才能做到的。 The moralist, however, is too apt, though this is not, of course, universally true, to stress the act rather than the state of mind. (para6) It is quite often the case that the moralist would place much emphasis on what people should do, but care little about whether they do such things painfully or happily. 不过,道德家往往——当然并非总是——重视行为,而轻视心理状态。 The effects of an act upon the agent will be widely different, according to his state of mind at the moment. (para6) The effect an act has on its performers differs radically完全地 according to the mood of the performer the moment he performs it. 其实,不同行为的效果之所以存在着巨大的差别,乃是因为行为者当时的心理状态不同。 ...but it should undoubtedly be of such a nature that one's own happiness is bound up in its success. (para7) If love is as healthy and nice as it should be, then happiness should undoutedly base itself upon the realization ,rather than the denial, of love. 然而,毫无疑问的是,爱应该具有这种性质,即一个人能从成功的爱情中获得幸福。 Undoubtedly we should desire the happiness of those whom we love, but not as an alternative to our own.(para7) No doubt, it is a virtue that we should wish those whom we love happiness, but it is utterly wrong to think that our own happiness is incompatible矛盾 with others, and the former would have to be sacrificed in order to achieve the latter. 毋庸置疑,我们应该希望自己所爱的人幸福,但不应该用它取代我们自己的幸福。 It is in such profound instinctive union with the stream of life that the greatest joy is to be found.(para7) If one is to find the greatest joy of life, he should break the bondage of his ego and naturally consider himself an equal and a part of all human beings in the stream of life. 将自我完全自然地融化于生命之流中去吧,美妙无穷的幸福在向你招手! paraphrase 1. But the thorns tear the warm garment and the cold blasts penetrate through the rents, and the man who has become accustomed to its warmth suffers far more from these blasts than a man who has hardened himself to them from the first. But, reality is, after all, reality, and all illusions and self-deceptions will break up some day. Anyone who has indulged himself in such illusions is more vulnerable than those who have faced up to difficulties all along. 2. The happy man is the man who lives objectively, who has free affections and wide interests, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they, in turn, make him an object of interest and affection to many others. One can be happy so long as he has developed affections and interests that are not self-centered. Through one’s affections for and interests in other people, one may receive interest and affection from others in return. 3. All unhappiness depends upon some kind of disintegration<解体> or lack of integration; there is disintegration within the self through lack of coordination between the conscious and the unconscious mind; there is lack of integration between the self and society where the two are not knit together by the force of objective interests and affections. Unhappiness is in most cases a result of conflict within oneself and separation between the self and the outside world, or conflict between care for the self and for social concerns. Such lack of unity is due to the lack of outward interests and affections.

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